Forward by the Editor

The concept of English as a foreign language has been a disputed matter among linguists for some time now, particularly in the fields of second language acquisition (SLA) and English language teaching (ELT). In these fields, the ultimate goal or standard has been the unattainable ideal of a native speaker, which has further alienated the learner and disappointed the user. TEFL finds itself at the centre of the paradoxes which arise from the global spread of English and its international use in the periphery. EFL which has been the dominant English model in the periphery is giving way to a new orthodoxy which attempts to be more suited to the realities of global English. At the same time, the field of ELT has become increasingly multidirectional and multifaceted in its applications.As new theories and research have emerged on language, and even more so, on English as a foreign language there may be a need to reconsider traditional TEFL models and propose a reformed alternative, based on the requirements and perceptions of the international user of English.
CALR Vol 10 looks at studies or analyses that target EFL learners’ needs; the international learner; methods of learning a foreign language and future directions.
Hayat Al-Khatib



Lebanese University English Department Curriculum: Keeping up with the Global English and Learners’ Needs

AuthorDr Rula Yazigy
Assistant Professor- Applied Linguistics
Lebanese University- This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

English has grown to be the global language used for various purposes, such as educational, economic, political and marketing. English language programs at all educational levels around the world have been updated to cater for the market requirements and learners’ needs. The trend has moved from treating the language as a solid entity of linguistic blocks to a flexible functional tool. English departments in the Humanities have been studied to see if they are keeping up with the theoretical and practical developments in the field. The English Department at Lebanese University, as part of the Faculty of Letters, updated its curricula in 2014 and is currently (2019) reviewing them. This research study aims at finding out whether the curriculum of the English Department at Lebanese University has kept up with the global need of English and whether it caters for the students’ needs and aspirations.
Key Words Lebanese University, English department, English as a global language, curriculum development

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Conceptual metaphors of black color in English and Mongolian

AuthorDr Tumengerel Purev
National University of Mongolia
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Abstract: Several efforts have been made to study metaphors of different colors in various languages of the world. The studies of metaphors have been conducted from different viewpoints. Metaphor is regarded as a literary method, the best poetic one that is used by numerous writers. Things, plants,animals, phenomena and colors are used as objects to give the message indirect ways.Consequently, I assume that there could be numerous similar metaphors in various languages. My study aims to compare the similarities and differences in the conceptualization of black color metaphors in both languages. Moreover, another goal of this paper is to support foreign researchers and students comprehend the similarities and differences of English and Mongolian and to give a valuable support during their research work and studies. In addition, I am trying to show that there must be some culture/language-specific metaphors. I have found that there are more similarities than differences between the metaphorical expressions in English and Mongolian. A comparative study of black color metaphors may be extremely valuable to overwhelmed misunderstanding and identify cross-cultural communication in both languages.There is still much to explore the relationship of the various degrees of this field, and study on color terms deserves more attention.
Key Words black color metaphor, cognitive, cross-cultural, conceptual, Mongolian

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AuthorAmira Budianti 1, John Pahamzah 2 & Akhmad Baihaqi 3
University of Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa, Indonesia
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Abstract:: The aim of this research was to find out the kinds, forms, and taxonomies of speech acts occurred in the English teaching and learning process at LP3I Cilegon. This research was qualitative research with content analysis design. The data of this research were the English utterances performed by the English lecturer and students of LP3I Cilegon. The data were classified according to Austin theory of speech acts which was developed by Kreidler. The results showed that there were two kinds of speech acts occurred, illocutionary and perlocutionary acts with the total of 1120 utterances. There were two forms of speech acts,namely direct speech and indirect speech acts. There were seven taxonomies of speech acts,i.e illocutionary assertive utterance (31%), illocutionary performative utterance (0,75%),illocutionary verdictive utterance (8%), illocutionary expressive utterance (1,25%),illocutionary directive utterance (36%), perlocutionary directive utterance (3%),illocutionary commisive utterance (7,5%) and illocutionary phatic utterance (12,5%). The most dominant speech acts used was direct illocutionary directive utterance while the fewest was indirect illocutionary performative utterance. In conclusion, the used of directive speechacts made implication towards the improvement of the students’ communicative skills because many lecturer’s instructions increased the students to more active speaking and critical thinking...
Key Words Discourse analysis, English teaching and learning, speech acts

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EFL: An exploration of the novel aspects of learning and using English as a Foreign Language

AuthorDr. Laurence Ajaka
Holy Spirit University of Kaslik
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Abstract: English as a Foreign Language (EFL) is an expanding field of research that has been prompted by the adoption of English as the international language of the world. Non-native speakers have their share of needs, perceptions, and preferences for their learning process that is currently under extensive research. Since EFL is applied in different countries, the instructors are advised to retain a measure of flexibility that can accommodate these dissimilarities as well as the changing face of the 21st-century classroom. Furthermore, EFL is a mixture of speaking and writing skills, so it is important to provide for both needs as some who have one preference over the other. Levels of education will exhibit variable needs and difficulties within the parameters of EFL, so educators are encouraged to account for them while preparing their curricula. Students often cite the lack of time and proper teaching strategies as hindrances for advancing in their EFL courses. They demand a more critical and analytic approach to teaching that utilizes the advancements of technology as aiding tools. It seems imperative that as the teaching skills evolve, the principles and guidelines of teaching EFL must also undergo the same changes that would give instructors and learners the necessary tool to excel in learning English for both social and academic purposes..
Key Words EFL, learning needs, analysis, adaptability

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Department of English Language Teaching,
Institute of Educational Sciences,
Near East University,
Near East Boulevard, ZIP: 99138
Nicosia / Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus
Alternate Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Cellphone: +90 0533 861 6653 , +90 0548 823 9082 +234 8035173675
Skype ID: tafarki1

Abstract: This paper analyses some of the factors that hinder the performance of Secondary School Students on the National Examination Council- Senior School Certificate Examination in Nigeria in the area of English as a foreign language standard examination. After juxtaposing the NECO-SSCE performances over the years, the study utilized several empirical studies, with quantitative framework, to examine these factors that both have positive or negative significance and influence in underpinning the academic performances of the learners. Several factors such as the learners’ attitudinal factor, teachers’ input and teaching strategy including years of experience and teaching qualifications, socio-economic and cultural background of the learners, parenting attitude, age and gender factor, exposure to the target language, learning materials and host of others have been identified and discussed. The paper however, considers these factors as applicable to most of the standard tests on English as a target language not only peculiar to the Nigerian NECO-SSCE English examination. Finally, the paper suggests certain recommendations which chiefly centre on offering professional development to teachers as well as encourage the stakeholders to cater for the needs and comfort of the students.
Key Words secondary school, National Examination Council of Nigeria (NECO), senior secondary school certificate examination (SSCE), language learning, academic performance.

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